Background of the antigen
Phosphatidate phosphatases are a family of integral membrane glycoproteins that dephosphorylate a variety of lipid phosphates and play a role in signal transduction via the phospholipase D pathway. PAP-2 proteins function independently of Mg2+ and are insensitive to NEM (N-ethylmaleimide) inhibition. The lipid phosphates degraded by this family include ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P), sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), phosphatidic acid (PA) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). LPPR4 (lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 4), also known as LPR4, PHP1, PRG1 or PRG-1, is a 763 amino acid multi-pass membrane protein that belongs to the PA-phosphatase related phosphoesterase family. Exclusively expressed in neurons, LPPR4 hydrolyzes lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and facilitates axonal outgrowth during development and regenerative sprouting. LPPR4 exists as two alternatively spliced isoforms and is encoded by a gene located on human chromosome 1p21.2.